Technical Sessions on Indirect Systems

The Technical Sessions on Indirect Systems in air conditioning and refrigeration applications are aimed at users, engineers, designers, installers, maintainers, and other HVAC&R professionals…

Temperatures in the RITE (Regulation Of Thermal Installations In Buildings)

It is logical for a Thermal Installations Regulation to address temperatures, but how many temperatures are there to consider when designing a human comfort air conditioning system? The answer is not…

Update of Regulation (EU) No. 517/2014: What You Need to Know About Changes in F Gases

The modification of Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 on Fluorinated Gases is now considered Approved Text. Pending final approval in Spain…

Impact Of UNE 16798 (WHO) On The Ventilation Criteria Of The New RITE

The IAQ Cluster for Air Quality and the National Installers Confederation, CNI, organized the second edition of the Technical Seminar for Air Quality…

Condensing Battery Functions in a Refrigeration System

The condensing battery, an essential component in refrigeration systems, performs two crucial functions that contribute to the cooling and climate control process…

Ventilation: Exceeding current standards for improved Air Quality

Ventilation requirements in premises have surpassed current regulations, the materials we use in our homes, the construction solutions…

The Four-Way Valve: A Key Component in Reversible Refrigeration Systems

In refrigeration systems, it is essential to have a mechanism that allows for efficient and flexible regulation of refrigerant flow. This is where the four-way valve comes… 

Absolute and Relative Pressure

Right now, as you are reading this text, your body is subjected to a pressure of one bar, one atmosphere. However, in a completely isolated refrigeration circuit, the atmospheric pressure has no influence… 

Sensible and Latent Heat

We usually assume when heat is added to or subtracted from a substance, its temperature also changes, it warms up or cools down, but this is not always the case. If the substance undergoes…

Mollier Diagram

The Mollier Diagram is a visual tool used in thermodynamics to represent the performance of a fluid throughout its cooling and heating cycle. It was developed by the German engineer…

SPF Concept

The Estimated Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF) indicates whether a heat pump equipment makes a net use of renewable energy, exchanging against air, water, land, etc. In this way, part of the energy generated by the HP comes from renewable sources, but not in any amount, the Regulations and Standards indicate the lower limit from which a HP equipment can be considered renewable…

What is Psychrometry?

For a correct integral and sustainable air conditioning of hospitals, we must pay special attention to the physiological and hygienic requirements of these, that is, we must be clear about how the environment has to be inside hospitals in general, and specifically in the different rooms that we find inside these buildings…

Integral and Sustainable Air-conditioning in The Hospital Sector

For a correct integral and sustainable air conditioning of hospitals, we must pay special attention to the physiological and hygienic requirements of these, that is, we must be clear about how the environment has to be inside hospitals in general, and specifically in the different rooms that we find inside these buildings…

Active-Passive Heat Recovery Ventilation

When ventilating spaces with human presence, it is essential to take into account the ventilation standards or needs that each room requires, depending on its characteristics…

Refrigerant Gases

What are refrigerant gases? This is the question that many people who work with them in their daily life may ask themselves. 

Indoor Air Quality in Hotels (IAQ)

When we talk about air conditioning in hotels, we always think about rooms and these environments comfort. But Hotels functionality is not only that, Restaurants, Bars and Entrance Halls are places that can be complex when it comes to air conditioning…

Ventilation and Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs

Hospital environments, not only operating theatres, infectious wards, burns or ICUs, are complex and require special measures to achieve healthy indoor air quality (IAQ), making them safe workplaces and optimal environments for patients and their companions. To achieve these air qualities, the use of Air Handling Units (AHUs), selected and customised to the needs of the different rooms, is required.

Heat Pump Principle

As a starting point to understand how a heat pump works, it is necessary to know the fundamental physical principle of Heat Transmission…

Photovoltaic Heat Pump Hybridisation

When we talk about renewable energies, there is no doubt that the first concepts to come to mind are solar thermal and photovoltaic energy, others such as wind, geothermal or tidal energy, although we also know them, are secondary. But traditionally these two have been renewability queens…

Metabolism and Ventilation in Heated Pools

The treatment that has been made to date of the Regulations and Regulations has not been very rigorous. Solutions have been taken which, although accepted by the majority, sometimes do not comply with the required requirements. This is one of those cases, and this time, in addition, related to the ventilation of the air-conditioned premises…

Hospital Air Conditioning

The Regulations of Air Conditioning and Ventilation of Hospitals are wide, the diversity of Zones to be air-conditioned and ventilated so indicate. From corridors to operating rooms, from delivery rooms to examination rooms, … the typologies and needs are very varied and different. Until today, where one characteristic is common to all, the defense against SARS-CoV-2 …

Photovoltaic Heat Pump

The global targets for decarbonisation and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions raise the increasing use of renewable energies. Within these, photovoltaic solar energy is an energy source that produces electricity of renewable origin, obtained directly from solar radiation by a semiconductor device called a photovoltaic cell…

Industrial Air Conditioning

The air conditioning concept includes thermal, hygrometric control and ventilation levels to reduce the concentration of pollutants, VOCs, … As is easily understood, in the industry the concepts of thermal and hygrometric comfort can be complex to achieve. Industrial buildings are not offices where these parameters are …

Monitoring and Control Systems in Hospitals

From KEYTER, in collaboration with HEATCOOL, we face this problem for different Hospitals. For this joint project, KEYTER has developed a control system specially designed with the aim of protecting health personnel and other users of hospital centers, in the case of highly infectious diseases, and patients with immune system problems who are hospitalized.

Centralised 2-pipe systems for heating and DHW

generation using Aerothermal energy

Keyter organised in collaboration with Uponor, leader in underfloor heating, geothermal, multilayer piping, Invisible air conditioning, plumbing and PEX an exclusive Webinar.

The reversible heat pump

How to keep the refrigerant content small and guarantee a constant (high) water temperature at low outdoor temperatures.

UV-C systems against COVID19 (SARS-CoV-2)

Ultraviolet C (UV-C) light has been identified as one of the most important barriers to preventing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID19) airborne infections.

Screw chillers with refrigerant 1234ZE

In 2004 fluorinated gases emitted by the refrigeration/air conditioning industry were responsible for 1.3% of global warming, up to 7.9% by the year 2050.

Different ways for dehumidification

The motivation and need to tackle the project is due to the fact that most of the facilities in the non-residential building sector have a high latent load.

Airconditioning for large spaces

In the recent years, there has been an increase in the regulatory requirements regarding indoor air quality and energy savings in large commercial area projects.

Climate efficiency in hotels

Due to the European policy, hotels must improve their energy efficiency and reduce their gas emissions.



01 – Heat

Pump Principle

 [Language: ES, EN

02 – Mollier Diagram


 [Language: ES] 

03 – Mollier Diagram

Refrigerant Gases

 [Language: ES] 

04 – Psychrometry

Wet Air Diagram

 [Language: ES] 



 [Language: ES] 



 [Language: ES] 


Expansion Valve (EEV)

 [Language: ES] 


Expansion Valve (TEV)

 [Language: ES] 

How does a

4-Way Valve work?

 [Language: ES] 

Sensible and 

Latent Heat
 [Language: ES] 

4 – Way 

 [Language: ES] 

Absolute and 

Relative Pressure
 [Language: ES] 


30 minutes
 [Language: ES] 

RSIF – Safety Regulations

for Refrigeration Installations

 [Language: ES] 

Hospital Supervision and

Control Systems
 [Language: ES] 


Chillers & Aerothermics

 [Language: ES] 


Present & Future

 [Language: ES] 

Integral and Sustainable Climate Control

in the Hospital Sector IAQ
 [Language: ES] 

Active-Passive Heat

Recovery Ventilation
 [Language: ES] 

Renewable and residual energies for

Heat Pumps in the Hotel Sector
 [Language: ES] 

Two-pipe centralized heating

and DHW systems using Aerothermics
 [Language: ES] 


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